Minimalist or high-volume training for marathon swims?

by Evan Morrison. 05 January 2011.

A few weeks ago there was an interesting exchange on Steven Munatones’ Facebook page. In response to Steve’s report of a group of Irish marathon swimmers who did a monster set of 200 x 100m on 1:40, Total Immersion founder Terry Laughlin commented:

How did I ever manage to complete the Manhattan Island Marathon twice, averaging less than 20,000 yards per week, and with most sets being 3000 yards or less? Ditto the 24-mile Tampa Bay Marathon.

Munatones responded:

You have written extensively how little you train for marathon by training neurologically vs. traditionally. Other swimmers also train relatively little while experiencing success in marathon swims. However, experiencing long tough workouts are a proven way to increase the PROBABILITY of finishing a race and overcoming the inevitable obstacles along the way. In my opinion, successful marathon swimming is about minimizing risks while occasionally doing long, tough workouts to maximize performance, especially if one is new to the sport. For yourself and others who have already completed a marathon swim or have decades of competitive swimming background, there is much less need to train long distances.

When successful people in the sport advocate less mileage and short training distances for channel/marathon swims, then newcomers in the sport are influenced by that minimalistic training approach. This, in my opinion, is not beneficial to newcomers. For most people, to train 3,000 - 5,000 meters per day without long training swims is not conducive to a successful and enjoyable channel/marathon swim experience. As Dave hints, if you want to be a channel/marathon swimmer, why train like a sprinter?

So, who’s right? _Do you need to train long distances to prepare for marathon swims? I think the answer depends to some extent on what you’re trying to do: _finish_ or _race.

If you have near-perfect technique and many years of swimming experience (and the former usually requires the latter), I do think it’s possible to finish a marathon swim (under neutral conditions) on relatively low-volume training. With great form comes efficiency, and efficient swimmers require very little energy to swim at a conservative pace. Given proper feeding and hydration, theoretically the only physical constraint should be the swimmer’s need for sleep.

That said, a minimalist approach to training for a marathon swim is, under most circumstances and for a variety of reasons, probably not a great idea.

What if you encounter adverse conditions? Rough water and cold water both require more energy to swim through - and usually a higher stroke rate. If you’re accustomed to 3,000m/day in pools with a long easy stroke, you may find yourself unprepared.

And what if you want to race, not just finish? What if, as in MIMS, you need to reach certain landmarks by certain times in order to catch the tide cycles? Perhaps the most important reason for high-volume training is to be able to sustain some level of effort for a long time. Elite open-water swimmers on the FINA circuit train 80-100K per week not out of masochism but because they need to swim fast for hours at a time to be competitive.

When it comes to racing a marathon swim, there are no shortcuts. Raw talent and good technique may take you far, but they won’t allow you to sustain a 170 bpm heartrate for 2 hours (or a 150 HR for 8 hours). You simply have to put in the work.

I also find it quite telling that the people who advocate minimalist training may finish marathon swims, but they never do so particularly quickly, or place particularly highly.

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Posted in: training Tags: Total Immersion


On 2011-01-05 15:11:24, IronMike said:
So, Evan, do you think one could finish a marathon swim, say, 12 or 15 miles on 5 days of 3000 yards each and one 'long' swim of 2-4 hours? That's my plan...

On 2011-01-05 17:55:01, Evan said:
Yes, if your technique is in order - that is, you can maintain a basic pace for a long time using minimal energy and without injuring your shoulders. Though, if it's an open ocean and/or cold water swim (English Channel and the like), I'd say it's probably not enough. Personally, I'd prefer more volume for that swim distance, but I understand people have constraints on their time. Just make sure: - your 3000-yard workouts COUNT - i.e., include some high intensity interval sets - you do a couple training swims of ~2/3 the goal distance - say 10 miles. This will give you a sense of how your mind and body handle the distance and will give you confidence going into the final swim. What's the 12-15 mile swim you have in mind?

On 2011-01-05 20:32:38, IronMike said:
Thanks! I'm thinking about the Strait of Gibraltar.

On 2011-01-05 21:42:54, Sully said:
I was debating doing my first swim meet ever this year, but when I looked at last years results I would either finish lengths behind, or tied with a 74 year old. Literally - my 200 SCY Free PR is 2:32. My closest to respectable time is the 100 IM where I can now push sub 1:15 from an in pool start which is less embarrassing. The reason I write all of this is that I have switched my training to primarily sprint training as of late. My long swim sets that include anything over 300s have felt horrible! My technique and stretch have improved dramatically so my times are still on par with past work. Basically, by not having gone long for a while - I am just not mentally of physically able to find comfort. I can't imagine not being able to find comfort for 5K, 10K, 10M, 20+M.

On 2011-01-06 11:27:25, Evan said:
First, you should go to the meet. Just try it - you might actually like it! Those times aren't embarrassing in the least, and besides, they'll seed you with people of similar speed. I think you'll find that the technique and fitness improvements that come from working on your short speed will transfer over to the long stuff. After all, to swim a 1:10 for five 100's in a row, you first must be able to swim a single 100 in 1:10 (then two, then three, etc.). Winter's a good time of year to work on speed anyway. Wait til the lake thaws to start worrying about the long stuff.

On 2011-01-06 11:30:51, Evan said:
Oh right, I remember you mentioning that on your blog. At least you don't have to worry about cold water there.